ARE ALL THE SAHIH (AUTHENTIC) AHADITH CONTAINED IN THE SAHIHAIN [SAHIH Al-BUKHARI AND SAHIH MUSLIM] ?
When commenting on the criteria laid down by Imaam Bukhari (r.a)and Imaam Muslim (r.a). The scholars generally rely upon their own scrutiny of the respective books (i.e. Sahih Al-Bukhari and Sahih Muslim) Reason being, that very little has being explained by the authors themselves.
For example, Imaam Al- Bukhari (r.a) has not written an introduction to his book, wherein he would have mentioned his criterion for accepting ahadith as sahih, or as to what would be his methodology in his book. This naturally leads to difference of opinion among the scholars.
However, there can be no difference of opinion when ‘’the horse speaks for itself’’, as is the case in this topic under discussion.
1Imaam Al-Bukhari (r.a) said,‘I have memorized one hundred thousand authentic ahadith
[Tazkiratul Huffaz – vol.2 pg.556]
Interestingly, he only included nine thousand and eighty two of them (including repetitions) in his Al-Sahih! (Refer:Hadyu Saari, pg.653)
‘’Imam Al-Ismaeeli (r.a.) has quoted Imam Al-Bukhari (r.a.) as saying: ‘’I have only included sahih (authentic) ahadith in this book (i.e. Sahih Al-Bukhari) However, the amount of sahih ahadeeth that are not included in it are much more.’’
[Hadyu Saari pg.9]
Imaam Ibrahim ibn Ma’qal Al-Nasafi (r.a) reports that Imaam Bukhari said ‘’I have only quoted authentic ahadith in my book. Furthermore, I excluded many other authentic narrations for the fear of monotony.’’
[ibid pg.9; Tarikh Dimashq vol.55 pg.54
These are quotations from Imaam Al-Bukhari (r.a) himself, which clearly explain the reality.
Imam Abu Bakr al Hazimi (r.a) states,‘Imam Al-Bukhari (r.a) never intended to encompass every authentic narration.’ [Shurutul A-immah]
Imaam Muslim (r.a)has made a similar statement in his book Sahih Muslim, “Chapter on Tashahhud”,‘I haven’t included every single authentic narration in this book.’ i.e, there are many authentic narrations that are not included therein.
Imam Muslim (R.A) is also reported to have said, ‘I haven’t ever claimed that those narrations that are excluded from my Sahih are weak. My only claim is that the ahadith contained in my book are authentic.’
[Tarikh Baghdad and Al-Imaam Ibn Majah wa kitaabu Al-Sunan, pg.107]
2)In the fourth century; there existed a deviated sect who claimed that besides the ahadith of Sahihain, there does not exist any other authentic narration. This false accusation was the reason for which Imaam Abu Abdillah Muhammad ibn Abdillah Al-Haakim Al-Naisaburi (r.a) compiled his famous work ‘Al-Mustadrak ‘alas Sahihain’’, in which he endeavored to compile those ahadith that fulfill the criteria of Sahih Al-Bukhari and Sahih Muslim but where not included therein.
In his introduction, Imaam Al-Haakim (r.a) says:“Neither of them (i.e. Imaam Bukhari (r.a) or Imaam Muslim (r.a).have stated that there exists no other authentic narrations besides what they have chose”.
[Al Mustadrak, vol.1 pg.2]
3)Furthermore, Hafiz Ibn Salaah (r.a)and others have divided the Sahih ahadith in toseven types:
1) Those ahadith that appear in both, Sahih al Bukhari and Sahih Muslim.
2) Those ahadith that appear only inSahih al Bukhari.
3) Those ahadith that appear only in Sahih Muslim.
4)Those ahadith that match the criteria of both, Sahih al Bukhari and Sahih Muslim.
5) Those ahadith that match the criteria of Sahih al Bukhari only.
6)Those ahadith that match the criteria of Sahih Muslim only.
7)Those that do not fit the description of any one of the above, but were classified authentic by some reliable Muhadditheen.
[Muqaddimah ibn Salaah pg.27; Tadribur Rawi pg.73 and Sarh Nukhbah pg.64]
In the light of the above, the last four types of authentic ahadith do not appear in the Sahihain.
Despite that, they are still considered as authentic.
• Added to this is the fact that Al-Hakim (r.a) cited ten types of Sahih ahadith, many of which are not included in the Sahihain.
[Tadribur Rawi pgs.85-86]
4)Lastly, the practice of all the Muhaddithin throughout time also confirms the prevalence of authentic ahadith outside of the Sahihain.Since many Muhaddithin have compiled books which they ensured, only contained authentic narrations.
Undoubtedly many of their narrations are not found in the Sahihain.
Some of these compilations are:
a)Sahih ibn Khuzaimah
b)Sahih ibn Hibban
c)Al-Muwatta of Imam Malik (r.a)
d)Al Mukhtaarah of Diyaaudeen al Maqdisi (r.a) etc.
5)In this regard, countless Muhadditheen have classified various ahadith (that do not appear in Sahihain) as Sahih. Books such as:
1)Al-Targheeb wa Tarheeb of Haafidh Al-Mundhiri (r.a.)
2)Riyaadu Salihen of Imaam Al-Nawawi (r.a.)
3)Majma’uz Zawaaid of ‘Allamah Al-Haithami (r.a.) etc.
clearly substantiate this.
These five points are sufficient to prove the fallacy of the claim that: there exists no Sahih hadith outside of the Sahihain (Sahih al Bukhari and Sahih Muslim).
AND ALLAH KNOWS BEST
Muhammad Ibn Haroon